M.Sc. Biotechnology

II Year Course(Semester Pattern)

Eligibility for admission:

A first class B.Sc., degree in Biology ,Biochemistry, Botany, Chemistry, Mathematics, Microbiology, Physics,Zoology or agriculture or B.E., or M.B.B.S., or B.V.Sc., of a recognized Indian or Foreign University.

Processing of application:

Applicants will be selected on an all-India basis. Apart from the Bachelor degree marks, selected applicants should pass an entrance examination. Among the successful candidates one seat will be allotted for a qualified candidate sponsored by an industry. Total number of students per year is twenty.

COURSE STRUCTURE

Semester I

Semester

Course code

Course Title

I

101

Biochemistry

I

102

Molecular Genetics

I

103

Microbiology

I

104

Immunology

I

105

Biophysics and Structural Biology

I

L101

Lab in Analytical Biochemistry

I

L102

Lab in Molecular Genetics

Semester II

Semester

Course code

Course Title

II

201

Molecular and Developmental Biology

II

202

Enzymology and Enzyme Technology

II

203

Biology of cloning vectors

II

204

Bioinformatics

II

205

Plant Molecular Biology and Intellectual Property Rights

II

L201

Lab in Immunology & animal cell culture

II

L202

Lab in Microbial Technology

Semester III

Semester

Course Code

Course Title

III

301

Recombinant DNA Technology

III

302

Immunotechnology

III

303

Microbial Biotechnology

III

304

Animal Biotechnology

III

305

Bioprocess Technology

III

L301

Lab in Recombinant DNA Technology

III

L302

Lab in Plant Biotechnology

Semester IV

Semester

Course Code

Course Title

IV

P401

Project work

Scheme of Examination

Semester I

Subject

Int

Ext

Total

Paper I Biochemistry

40

60

100

Paper II Molecular Genetics

40

60

100

Paper III Microbiology

40

60

100

Paper IV Immunology

40

60

100

Paper V Biophysics and Structural Biology

40

60

100

Practical I lab in Analytical Biochemistry

20

30

50

Practical II Lab in Molecular Genetics

20

30

50

 

Genetics Fundamentals of Chemistry (Make up)

Fundamentals of Mathematics(make up)

Semester II

Subject

Int

Ext

Total

Paper VI Molecular & Developmental Biology

40

60

100

Paper VII Enzymology & Enzyme Technology

40

60

100

Paper VIII Biology of cloning Vectors

40

60

100

Paper IX Bioinformatics

20

30

50

Paper X Plant Molecular Biology and Intellectual Property Rights

40

60

100

Practical III Lab in Immunology & Ani.cell culture

20

30

50

Practical IV Lab in Microbial Technology

20

30

50

Semester III

Subject

Int

Ext

Total

Paper XI Recombinant DNA Technology

40

60

100

Paper XII Immunotechnology

40

60

100

Paper XIII Microbial Biotechnology

40

60

100

Paper XIV Animal Biotechnology

40

60

100

Paper XV Bioprocess Technology

20

30

50

Practical V Lab in Recombinant DNA Technology

20

30

50

Practical VI Lab in

Plant Biotechnology

20

30

50

Semester IV

Subject

Int.

Ext.

Total

P401 Project work

-

-

300

Commercial Aspects of Biotechnology(optional)

SYLLABUS :

SEMESTER I

Paper 1-Biochemistry

Principles of Bioenergitics. Glycolysis and the catabolism of hexoses. The citric acid cycle. Oxidation of fatty acids. Oxidation of amino acids. Oxidative phosphorylation. Photophosphorylation. Carbohydrate biosynthesis. Lipid biosynthesis. Biosynthesis of aminoacids, nucleotides and related molecules. Integration and hormonal regulation of mammalian metabolism. Biological membranes and transport. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thrombaxanes. Interferons and interleukins. Antibiotics. Alkaloids. Animal pigments. Cytoskeletal organization chemical synthesis of peptides and oligosaccharides

Paper II: Molecular genetics :

Gene as the unit of mutation and recombination. Identification of DNA as the genetic material. Mutations; molecular nature; mutagenesis by nitrous acid, hydroxyl amine, alkylating agents, intercalaters and UV; origin of spontaneous mutations and control. Para-sexual processes in bacteria; transformation, transduction and conjugal gene transfer- the phenomena, mechanisms and applications. Fine structure genetic analysis with examples. Recombination control; models and mechanisms. Gene as the unit of expression, co-linearity of gene and polypeptide. Elucidation of the genetic code. Wobble base pairing. Supression of non-sense, mis-sense and frame shift mutations. Regulation of gene expression, the operon concept � positive and negative control, attenuation control. Control sequences; promotor, operator, terminator and attenuator

DNA damage and repair: DNA damage by UV, alkylating agents, cross-linkers. Mechanisms of repair- photoreactivation, excision repair, recombinational repair. The SOS and adaptive responses and their regulation. Heat shock response

Extrachormosomal heredity: biology of plasmids- discovery, types and structure of F-RTF, COI-factors and Ti-replication and partitioning. Incompatibility and copy number control. Natural and artificial plasmid transfer and their applications.

Genetics of eukaryotes; gene linkage and chromosome mapping, crossing over, three point cross, tetrad analysis. Complementation. Organization of chromosomes � specialised chromosomes, chromosome abnormalites, quantitative inheritance and population genetics. Developmental genetics using drosophila as model system. somatic cell genetics.

Paper III: Microbiology :

Ultra structure of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses. Classification of microbes, molecular taxonomy. Current methods of microbial identification. Biology of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thruingiensis, Streptomyces species, Pseudomonas species, Rhizopium species, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, Archaeobacteria and bacteriophages. Dairy and food microbiology. Plant-microbe interactions. Human pathogens. Disinfectants and antibiotics. Environmental microbiology.

Paper IV : Immunology.

History and scope of immunology. Types of immunity- innate, acquired, passive and active. Physiology of immune response- HI and CMI specificity and memory. Antigen-antibody reactions. Antigens- types- hapten. Immunoglobulins- structure, distribution and function. Molecular biology of Ig synthesis. Lymphoid tissues- ontogeny and physiology of immune system- origin and development, differentition of lymphocytes. Lymphocyte sub-populations of mouse and man. Structure and functions of class-I and �II molecules. Antigen distribution in population- HLA in human health and disease. Transplantation immunity- organ transplantation and HLA tissue typing. Effector mechanisms in immunity- macrophage activation. Cell mediated cytotoxicity. Hypersensitivity reactions. Cellular interactions in human response. Antigen recognition. T-, B- cell receptors, MHC-restriction. Lymphocyte activation, colonal proliferation, differentiation. Interleukines and their role. The complement systems- mode of activation, classical and alternate pathway, biological functions. Immunoregulation- helper and supressor cells, specific factors. Idiotype network. Immune response genes. Immunological tolerance- immunosuppression. Introduction to tumour immunology, autoimmune disorders and immunology of infectious diseases.

PAPER V: Biophysics and structural biology.

Physics and biology: scope and methods of biophysics. Levels of molecular organization. Understanding structures of proteins at different levels- primary,- secondary, - tertiary and � quarternary; conformational analysis and forces. Understanding structures of nucleic acids at different levels- primary,- secondary, - tertiary and � quarternary; analysis of interactions; protein- nucleic acid interactions. Polysaccharides. Association of macromolecules, lipids in biological membranes, protein in biological membranes. Molecular mechanics and dynamics.

Structural biology: role and importance. Techniques; CD/ORD, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Electron Microscopy, NMR, X-ray crystallography, applications; understanding regulation and kinetics of biological activity, specific examples.

Theory and applications of colorimeter, spectrophotometer, pH meter & buffers Methods of protein estimation (Lowry and Bradford). Thin layer chromatography. Screening and identification of industrially important microorganisms. Production of an extracellular enzyme from bacteria/fungus and downstream processing �a) Ultrafiltration, b) Ammonium sulphate precipitation, c) Dialysis, d) Ion exchange chromatography d) Gel permeation chromatography etc. Polyacrylamide gel Electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, Radioactive labeling a measurement of radioactivity. Demonstration of GLC and HPLC.

Practical L102 � LAB IN MOLECULAR GENETICS:

Single colony isolation and checking for genetic markers, Measurement if growth rate; One step growth curve using a even phage; Induced mutagenesis and isolation of antibiotic resistant and auxotrophic mutants; Enrichment methods for auxotrophic and antibiotic resistant mutants; Genetic mapping by p1 transduction.; Genetic mapping by conjugation; Isolation of specialized transducing phage; Transposan mutagenesis of chromosomal DNA; Transpose mutagenesis of plasmid DNA; Experiments with gene fusion.

SEMESTER II

Paper VI � MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Cellular organelles � Structure and function. Organization of cytoskeleton and nuclei. Chromatin structure. Molecular aspects of cell division and cell cycle. Cell fusion. Nuclear � cytoplasmic interactions. Structure of DNA and RNA melting an dunwinding kinetics. DNA replication, kinetics, Repair and gene amplification. RNA transcription and processing. Protein synthesis and secretion. Transcriptional and Translational controls. Hormones and gene expression. Viruses and gene expression. Growth factors Mitogens and oncogenes. Cellular regulation, development and differentiation.

Paper VII- ENZYMOLOGY AND ENZYME TECHNOLOGY:

Enzyme classification and nomenclature. General properties of enzymes like effect of pH, temp, ions etc. Extraction , assay and purification of enzymes. Steady state kinetics. Michaelis � Menten, Lineweaver-Burke, Eadie-hofstee and Hanes-Woolf equations and Km value. Enzyme inhibitors. Pre-steady state kinetics. Fast kinetics to elucidate the intermediates and rate limiting steps (Flow and Relaxation methods). Enzyme specificity. Evidences for enzyme substrate complex. Nucleophilic attack. Role of metal ions in enzyme enzyme catalysis. Mechanism of enzyme action eg. Lysozyme, chymotrypsin, DNA polymerases, Rnase, etc. Zymogens and enzyme activation. Allosteric interactions and product inhibition; Complex kinetics and analyses, Membrane bound enzymes � Extraction, assay lipid protein interaction and effect of fludity on enzyme activity. Coenzyme; Clinical and Industrial applications of enzymes. Immobilization of enzymes and their application. Ribozymes and their applications. Enzyme engineering.

Paper VIII BIOLOGY OF CLONING VECTORS:

DNA transactions; replication, repair, recombination, and restriction. Plasmid biology, plasmids of gram negative bacteria, ColE1, R1, pT181, psc101. Plasmids of gram positive bacteria. P1J101. SLP and SCP plasmids of streptomyces. Plasmid vectors of various types. Biology of bacteriphage lambda. Lambda phage as natural in vivo vector, in vitro construction of a lambda vector, classes of lambda vectors. Cosmid vectors and their use. M13 vectors and their use, streptomyces phage vectors. How to choose the right type of vector. Specialized vectors- expression vectors, orf vectors, gene fusion ectors etc. Animal viruses and gene cloning. Agrobacterial plasmid biology and their use in plant genetic engineering. Vectors for yeast.

Paper IX � BIOINFORMATICS :

Information theory and biology; Entropy, Shannon�s formula, divergneces from equiprobability and independence, Markov chains, ergodic processes, redundancy, application to DNA and protein sequences.

Use of databases in biology: Sequence databases, structural databases, sequence Analysis- proteins and nucleic acids, structural comparisons, genome projects.

Paper X � PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Plant genome organization, structural features of a representative plant gene, gene families in plants. Organization of chloroplast genome, nucleus � encoded and chloroplast-encoded genes for chloroplast proteins, targeting of proteins to chloroplast. Organization of mitochondrial genome, nuclear and mitochondria encoded genes for mitochondrial proteins. RNA editing in plant mitochondria, mitochondrial genome and cytoplasmic male sterility. Seed storage proteins. Maize transposable elements, organisation and function, transposable elements in transgenic plants. Regulation of gene expression in plant development. Plant hormones and phytochrome.

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes by Rhizobia � biochemistry and molecular biology, Agrobacterium and crown gall tumours. Mechanism of T_DNA transfer to plants, Ti plasmid vectors for plant transformation, Agroinfection. Classification and molecular biology of plant viruses. Molecular biology of plant stress response.

Genetic engineering in plants , selectable markers, reporter genes and promoters used in plant vectors. Direct transformation of plants by physical methods. Genetic engineering of plants for virus resistance, post resistance, herbicide tolerance, cytoplasmic male-sterility, delay of fruit ripening, resistance to fungi and bacteria. Production of antibodies , viral antigens and peptide hormones in plants, pagene silencin gin transgenic plants, DNA markers in marker-assisted selection and plant breeding. Management aspects of plant genetic Engineering. Tagging, mapping and cloning of plant genes. Molecular biology of plant pathogen interactions.

Intellectual property rights: Principles and importance.

Practical L201 � LAB IN IMMUNOLOGY AND ANIMAL CELL CULTURE :

Preparation of antigens � protocol of immunization,methods of bleeding.Preparation of serum and complement.Antigen-antibody reactions-Haemagglutination,Haemolysis,passive HA,precipitin ring test,immunodiffusion,immunoelectrophoresis,Complement fixation test,Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay,Plaque forming cell assay,Isolation of immunoglobulin,Characterization,Peripheral blood mononuclear cell seperation.Lymphocyte subset identification and enumeration.Western blotting.Preparation of media,prepartion of primary culture,maintenance of secondary culture,evaluation of culture dynamics.Cell synchronization � preservation and revival of cells.Hybridoma technology and monoclonal antibody production.

Practical L202 � LAB IN MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY :

Introduction to bioprocess technology parts and designs of bioreactors; production of biomass;batch and continuous fed batch fermentaion, scale up recovery of producst;Laboratory scale fermenaion of antibiotics,immobilization of cells and enzymes. Isolation of DNA from cloning vectors � plasmids and phages. Extraction of total DNA from plant and animal tissues. Isolation of restriction enzymes � demonstration of restriction systems, restriction mapping, pulsed field electrophoresis.

SEMESTER III

Paper XI � RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

Core techniques in gene manipulation.Cutting and Joing DNA.Introduction of DNA into Cells.Cloning strategies, construction of genomic libraries and cDNA libraries.Probe construction, recombinant selection and screening.Analysis of expression, analysis of recombinant DNA, sequencing, mutagenesis, altered expression and engineering genes.DNA amplification using polymerase chain reaction.Key concepts.Analysis of amplified products.Applications of PCR; Ligase chain reaction.Expression systems and their applcations.E.coli.,streptomyces,Yeast,baculovirus and animal cells as cloning hosts.

Paper XII � IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY

Hybridoma techniques and monoclonal antibody production.Myeloma cell lines.Fusion of myeloma cells with antibody procing B-cells.Fusion methods.Selction and screeing methods for positive hybrids.Cloning methods.Production, Purification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies.Application of monoclonals in biomedical research, In clinical diagnosis and reatment.Production of human monoclonal antibodies and their applications.

T cell cloning. Mechanism of antigen recognition by T- and B- lymphocytes. Structure, function and synthesis of lymphokines. Importance of antigen presentation and MHC class II molecules in T cell cloning. Antigen specific and alloreactive T cell cloning. Use of T cell cloning in understanding the immunologically relevant antigens and T-cell epitopes. Application of T cell cloning in vaccine development.

Immunity to viruses, bacteria and parasites. Genetic control of immune response. MHC associated predisposition to diseases. Infectious diseases,Leprosy,Tuberculosis, Malaria,Filariasis,Amoebiasis,Rabis,Typhoid,Hepatitis,AIDS.Principles and strategy for developing vaccines. Newer methods of vaccine preparation. Immunodiagnosis of infectious diseases.

Paper XIII � MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Intrachromosomal gene cloning in organisms other than E.coli.Degradation of toxic chemicals by pseudomonads. Protein secretion in bacteria. Biological insect control. Microbes as food and feed for animals. Microbial mining and oreleaching. Pollution and waste control. Environmental release and monitoring of genetically modified/engineered organisms.

Paper XIV � ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Genetic Engineering in animals. Transformation of animal cells. Cloning vectors and expression vectors animal viral vectors and yeast vectors. Genetic engineering and applied to specific areas � regulatory proteins blood products, vaccines and hormones.

Production of usefulproteins in transgenic animals.AIDS.Oncogenes and anti-oncogenes � phasge display technogy. Signal transduction.

Baculoviruses in biocontrol and foreign gene expression. Biotechnology of aquaculture. Transgenic animals. -In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

Use of nucleic acid probes and antibodies in clinical diagnosis and tissue typing.Mapping of human genome. RFLP and applications. Gene therapy. Ethical issues in animal biotechnology. Management aspects of biotechnology and genetic engineering.

Paper XV-BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY

Isolation and screening of industrially important microbes. Improvement of the strains for increased yield and other desirable characteristics. Advantage of bioprocess over chemical process. Basic principles in bioprocess.Media formulation, strlization.Thermal death kinetics.Batch and continuous sterilization systems.Sterilization of air.Fibrous filters.Bioreactor design, parts and their functions.Types of reactors CSTR, Tower, Jet loop, Airlift, Bubble column, Packed bed.Immobilized cells.Enzyme co-immobilization.Some examples of bioprocess for the production of biomass.Primary and Secondary metabolites, extracellular enzymes, biotechnologically important intracellular products, exopolymers.

Transport phenomena in bioprocess � Mass transfer. Mass transfer coefficient for gases and liquids. Dimensionless groups. Mass transfer resistance. Rate of oxygen transfer. Determination of oxygen transfer coefficients. Theological properties of intermedium. Biological heat transfer. Heat transfer coefficients.

Bioprocess control and monitoring variables such as Temperature, agiation, pressure, pH. On line measurement. On/off control. PID control. Computers in bioprocess control systems. Downstream processing of biologicals.

Practical L301 � LAB IN RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

DNA cloning.use of expression vectors. Southern hybridization. Preparation of radioactive and non-radioactive probes. Northern blotting and western blotting. S1 mapping. DNA sequencing. Genome analysis � bacteria, plants and animals. Site � directed mutagenesis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Practical L 302 � LAB IN PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

Micropropagation, surface � sterilization of field grown tissues, callus induction, initiation of suspension cultures, role of hormones in plant morphogenesis, regeneration of shoots and roots from callus cultures.conditioning of tissue culture plants, transfer of plants to green house.

Isolation and purification of protoplasts, viability test for protoplasts, protoplast cultures.

Induction of tumors by Agrobacterium, introduction of binary vectors into Agrobacterium by triparental mating, leaf disc/leaf transformation using Agrobacterium, GUS expression in transformed tissues, extraction of DNA from transformed plants, Southern hybridization to check plant transformation. PCR amplification of T-DNA in transformed plant tissues. Direct transformation of plant tissues by microprojectile bombardment.