School of Biotechnology

Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai


Dept.of Molecular Microbiology
mail : [email protected]
Publications Projects People

Research Interests

  • Immunopathological studies of granuloma in cutaneous tuberculosis and in lymphadenitis.
  • Immunohistochemical characterization of cutaneous tuberculosis and lymph adenitis in both frozen and paraffin sections looking for macrophages, fibroblasts, T cell and B cell markers. The cytokines like g-IFN, TGF-b were also analysed in these sections.
  • Three week reaction in cutaneous tuberculosis and immuno histological characterization of this reaction.
  • Fibrosis in tuberculosis.
  • Delayed hypersensitivity reaction observed in experimental tuberculosis.
  • Immunomodulatory effect of immune complexes in experimental tuberculosis.
  • The efficacy of recombinant BCG vaccine in experimental tuberculosis.
  • Histological and immunohistological characterization of various forms of leprosy.
  • Invitro studies on the initiation of complement system by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Confocal imaging of various strains of M.tb and recombinant strains of BCG.


  1. V.D.Ramanathan, H.SHAKILA and K.C.Umapathy. The induction of a "Mitsuda" type response by purified protein derivative (PPD) in tuberculosis. 1998. In: PROCEEDINGS of the X International Congress of Immunology, Ed: Talwar G.P, Nath I, Ganguly N.K, Rao K.V.S. pp 1093-97; Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, Italy.
  1. H.SHAKILA, K.Jayasankar and V.D.Ramanathan. The clearance of tubercle bacilli and mycobacterial antigen(s) vis a vis the granuloma in different organs of guinea pigs. Indian J. Med. Res. 1999; 110: 4-10.
  1. K.Jayasankar, H.SHAKILA, K.C.Umapathy and Ramanathan V.D. Biochemical and histochemical changes pertaining to active and healed cutaneous tuberculosis. British Journal of Dermatology, 2002; 146: 977-982. <
  1. Ramandeep Singh, Vivek Rao, H. SHAKILA, Radhika Gupta, Aparna Khera, Neeraj Dhar, Amit Singh, Anil Koul, Yogendra Singh, M. Naseema, P.R. Narayanan, C. N. Paramasivan, V.D. Ramanathan and Anil K. Tyagi. Disruption of mptpB impairs the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to survive in guinea pigs. Molecular Microbiology; 2003; 50:751-62.
  1. V Malhotra, D Sharma, VD Ramanathan, H SHAKILA, T Das, S Chakravorty, D Saini, Q Li, R Silver, PR Narayanan, J Tyagi. Disruption of response regulator gene, devR, leads to attenuation in virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FEMS Microbiology Letters; 2004; 231: 237-45.
  1. VD Ramanathan, H SHAKILA. Recent trends in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. J Immunol. Immunopathol. 2004; 6: 6-12.
  1. Rao V, Dhar N, SHAKILA H, Singh R, Khera A, Jain R, Naseema M, Paramasivan CN, Narayanan PR, Ramanathan VD, Tyagi AK. Increased Expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19 kDa Lipoprotein Obliterates the Protective Efficacy of BCG by Polarizing Host Immune Responses to the Th2 Subtype. Scand J Immunol. 2005 May; 61(5):410-7.
  1. A Khera, R Singh, H SHAKILA, V Rao, N Dhar, PR Narayanan, CN Paramasivan, VD Ramanathan AK Tyagi. Elicitation of efficient, protect immune responses by using DNA vaccines against tuberculosis. Accepted for publication in Vaccine.
  1. Padmavathy, L. Lakshmana Rao, V.D. Ramanathan and H. Shakila. Mycobacterial antigen in tissues in diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, 2005; 52: 31-35.
  1. Sharma, Deepak; Bose, Arpita; H, Shakila; Das, Taposh; Tyagi, Jaya; Ramanathan, Vadakkuppattu. Expression of mycobacterial cell division protein, FtsZ, and dormancy proteins, DevR and Acr, within lung granulomas throughout guinea pig infection. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 2006; Published article online: 24-Oct-2006 doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2006.00160.x



1. Host pathogen interaction and gene disruption studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (submitted to DBT)



M.Sc project student

  • Lalan kumar

M.Phil project student

  • Gopinath